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Originaltexten är här: http://www.westonaprice.org/food-features/living-with-phytic-acid

 

Leva med fytinsyra

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Written by Ramiel Nagel Skrivet av Ramiel Nagel
March 26 2010 26 mars 2010

Preparing Grains, Nuts, Seeds and Beans for Maximum Nutrition Förbereda gryn, nötter, frön och bönor för maximal Nutrition

Phytic acid in grains, nuts, seeds and beans represents a serious problem in our diets. Fytinsyra i säd, nötter, frön och bönor utgör ett allvarligt problem i vår kost. This problem exists because we have lost touch with our ancestral heritage of food preparation. Detta problem finns eftersom vi har förlorat kontakten med våra förfäders arv av livsmedel. Instead we listen to food gurus and ivory tower theorists who promote the consumption of raw and unprocessed “whole foods;” or, we eat a lot of high-phytate foods like commercial whole wheat bread and all-bran breakfast cereals. Istället lyssnar vi till mat gurus och elfenbenstorn teoretiker som främjar konsumtionen av rå och obearbetad ”hela livsmedel,” eller, vi äter mycket hög fytat mat som kommersiella fullkornsbröd och all-kli frukostflingor. But raw is definitely not Nature’s way for grains, nuts, seeds and beans. Men Raw är definitivt inte naturens sätt för spannmål, nötter, frön och bönor. . . . . and even some tubers, like yams; nor are quick cooking or rapid heat processes like extrusion. och även vissa knölar, som jams, och inte heller är snabba matlagning eller snabba förlopp värme som extrudering.

Phytic acid is the principal storage form of phosphorus in many plant tissues, especially the bran portion of grains and other seeds. Fytinsyra är den huvudsakliga lagringsformen för fosfor i många växtvävnader, speciellt kli partiet av korn och andra frön. It contains the mineral phosphorus tightly bound in a snowflake-like molecule. Den innehåller mineralet fosfor tätt bundna i ett snöflinga-liknande molekyl. In humans and animals with one stomach, the phosphorus is not readily bioavailable. Hos människor och djur med en mage, är fosfor inte är lätt biotillgängliga. In addition to blocking phosphorus availability, the “arms” of the phytic acid molecule readily bind with other minerals, such as calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc, making them unavailable as well. Förutom att blockera fosfor tillgänglighet, den ”armar” av fytinsyra molekylen binder lätt med andra mineraler, såsom kalcium, magnesium, järn och zink, vilket gör dem otillgängliga också. In this form, the compound is referred to as phytate. I denna form, är föreningen benämns fytat.

Phytic acid not only grabs on to or chelates important minerals, but also inhibits enzymes that we need to digest our food, including pepsin, 1 needed for the breakdown of proteins in the stomach, and amylase, 2 needed for the breakdown of starch into sugar. Fytinsyra inte bara tar tag på eller kelat viktiga mineraler, men också hämmar enzymer som vi behöver smälta vår mat, inklusive pepsin, 1 behövs för nedbrytningen av proteiner i magen, och amylas, 2 behövs för nedbrytningen av stärkelse till socker . Trypsin, needed for protein digestion in the small intestine, is also inhibited by phytates. 3 Trypsin, som behövs för proteinspjälkning i tunntarmen, också hämmas av fytater. 3

Through observation I have witnessed the powerful anti-nutritional effects of a diet high in phytate-rich grains on my family members, with many health problems as a result, including tooth decay, nutrient deficiencies, lack of appetite and digestive problems. Genom observation har jag bevittnat de kraftfulla anti-näringsmässiga effekterna av en kost rik på fytat-rika korn på mina familjemedlemmar, med många hälsoproblem som ett resultat, inklusive karies, brist på näringsämnen, brist på aptit och matsmältningsproblem.

The presence of phytic acid in so many enjoyable foods we regularly consume makes it imperative that we know how to prepare these foods to neutralize phytic acid content as much as possible, and also to consume them in the context of a diet containing factors that mitigate the harmful effects of phytic acid. Närvaron av fytinsyra i så många trevliga mat vi regelbundet konsumerar är det viktigt att vi vet hur man förbereder dessa livsmedel för att neutralisera fytinsyra innehåll så mycket som möjligt, och även att konsumera dem i samband med en kost som innehåller faktorer som mildrar skadliga effekterna av fytinsyra.

spr10-phyticacid
Six-sided phytic acid molecule with a phosphorus atom in each arm. Sexsidiga fytinsyra molekyl med en fosforatom i varje arm.

PHYTATES IN FOOD Fytater in Food

Phytic acid is present in beans, seeds, nuts, grains—especially in the bran or outer hull; phytates are also found in tubers, and trace amounts occur in certain fruits and vegetables like berries and green beans. Fytinsyra finns i bönor, frön, nötter, spannmål, särskilt i kli eller yttre skrovet, fytater finns också i knölar och spårmängder förekommer i vissa frukter och grönsaker som bär och gröna bönor. Up to 80 percent of the phosphorus—a vital mineral for bones and health—present in grains is locked into an unusable form as phytate. 4 When a diet including more than small amounts of phytate is consumed, the body will bind calcium to phytic acid and form insoluble phytate complexes. Upp till 80 procent av fosfor-en viktig mineral för skelett och hälso-som finns i korn är låst till en oanvändbar form som fytat. När en kost inklusive mer än små mängder av fytat förbrukas, kommer kroppen att binda kalcium till fytinsyra 4 och bildar olösliga fytat komplex. The net result is you lose calcium, and don’t absorb phosphorus. Resultatet är att du förlorar kalcium, och inte absorberar fosfor. Further, research suggests that we will absorb approximately 20 percent more zinc and 60 percent magnesium from our food when phytate is absent. 5 Vidare tyder forskning som vi kommer att absorbera ungefär 20 procent mer zink och 60 procent magnesium från vår mat när fytat är frånvarande. 5

The amount of phytate in grains, nuts, legumes and seeds is highly variable; the levels that researchers find when they analyze a specific food probably depends on growing conditions, harvesting techniques, processing methods, testing methods and even the age of the food being tested. Mängden av fytat i säd, nötter, baljväxter och frön är mycket varierande, de nivåer som forskarna när de analyserar en viss mat beror nog på odlingsförhållanden, slakt tekniker, bearbetningsmetoder, testmetoder och även ålder maten som testas . Phytic acid will be much higher in foods grown using modern high-phosphate fertilizers than those grown in natural compost. 6 Fytinsyra kommer att vara mycket högre i livsmedel som odlats med hjälp av moderna high-fosfatgödselmedel än de som odlas i naturlig kompost. 6

Seeds and bran are the highest sources of phytates, containing as much as two to five times more phytate than even some varieties of soybeans, which we know are highly indigestible unless fermented for long periods. Frön och kli är de högsta källorna till fytater, innehållande så mycket som 2-5 gånger mer fytat än även vissa sorter av sojabönor, som vi vet är mycket svårsmälta inte fermenteras under långa perioder. Remember the oat bran fad? Kom ihåg modefluga havrekliet? The advice to eat bran, or high fiber foods containing different types of bran, is a recipe for severe bone loss and intestinal problems due to the high phytic acid content. Råden att äta kli, eller höga mat fiber som innehåller olika typer av kli, är ett recept för svår förlust av benmassa och tarmproblem på grund av den höga fytinsyra innehåll. Raw unfermented cocoa beans and normal cocoa powder are extremely high in phytates. Råa fermenterade kakaobönor och normal kakaopulver är extremt hög i fytater. Processed chocolates may also contain phytates. Bearbetade choklad kan också innehålla fytater. White chocolate or cocoa butter probably does not contain phytates. Vit choklad eller kakaosmör förmodligen inte innehåller fytater. More evidence is needed as to phytate content of prepared chocolates and white chocolate. Mer bevis krävs för att fytatinnehållet av lagad choklad och vit choklad. Coffee beans also contain phytic acid. Kaffebönor innehåller också fytinsyra. The chart in Figure 1 shows the variability of phytate levels in various common foods as a percentage of dry weight. Diagrammet i fig 1 visar variationen av fytat-nivåer i olika vanliga livsmedel som en procentandel av torrsubstansen. Phytate levels in terms of milligrams per hundred grams are shown in Figure 2. Fytat-nivåer i termer av milligram per hundra gram visas i figur 2.

DETRIMENTAL EFFECTS Skadeverkningar

High-phytate diets result in mineral deficiencies. High-fytat kost leda till mineralbrist. In populations where cereal grains provide a major source of calories, rickets and osteoporosis are common. 10 I populationer där sädeskorn ger en stor källa till kalorier, rakitis och benskörhet är vanligt. 10

Interestingly, the body has some ability to adapt to the effects of phytates in the diet. Intressant nog har kroppen en viss förmåga att anpassa sig till effekterna av fytater i dieten. Several studies show that subjects given high levels of whole wheat at first excrete more calcium than they take in, but after several weeks on this diet, they reach a balance and do not excrete excess calcium. 11 However, no studies of this phenomenon have been carried out over a long period; nor have researchers looked at whether human beings can adjust to the phytate-reducing effects of other important minerals, such as iron, magnesium and zinc. Flera studier visar att försökspersoner som fått höga nivåer av fullkornsvete först utsöndrar mer kalcium än de tar in, men efter flera veckor på denna kost, de når en balans och inte utsöndra överskott av kalcium 11. Dock har inga studier av detta fenomen har genomföras under en lång tid, och inte heller har forskarna tittat på om människor kan anpassa sig till de fytat-reducerande effekten av andra viktiga mineraler såsom järn, magnesium och zink.

The zinc- and iron-blocking effects of phytic acid can be just as serious as the calcium-blocking effects. Zink-och järn-blockerande effekt av fytinsyra kan vara lika allvarliga som kalcium-blockerande effekter. For example, one study showed that a wheat roll containing 2 mg phytic acid inhibited zinc absorption by 18 percent; 25 mg phytic acid in the roll inhibited zinc absorption by 64 percent; and 250 mg inhibited zinc absorption by 82 percent.12 Nuts have a marked inhibitory action on the absorption of iron due to their phytic acid content. 13 Till exempel visade en studie att en vete rulle innehållande 2 mg fytinsyra hämmas zinkabsorption med 18 procent, 25 mg fytinsyra i rullen hämmas zinkabsorption med 64 procent, och 250 mg hämmade zinkabsorption med 82 percent.12 Nuts har en märkta hämmande verkan på upptaget av järn på grund av deras fytinsyra innehåll. 13

Over the long term, when the diet lacks minerals or contains high levels of phytates or both, the metabolism goes down, and the body goes into mineral-starvation mode. På lång sikt, när dieten saknar mineral eller innehåller höga halter av fytater eller båda går ämnesomsättningen ner och kroppen går in i mineral-svält-läge. The body then sets itself up to use as little of these minerals as possible. Kroppen ställer då själv för att använda så lite av dessa mineraler som möjligt. Adults may get by for decades on a high-phytate diet, but growing children run into severe problems. Vuxna kan få genom att i årtionden på en hög fytatdiet, men växande barn stöter allvarliga problem. In a phytate-rich diet, their bodies will suffer from the lack of calcium and phosphorus with poor bone growth, short stature, rickets, narrow jaws and tooth decay; and for the lack of zinc and iron with anemia and mental retardation. I en fytat-rik kost, kommer deras kroppar drabbas av brist på kalcium och fosfor med dålig bentillväxt, kortväxthet, rakitis, smala käkar och karies, och bristen på zink och järn med anemi och mental retardation.

THE EXPERIMENTS OF EDWARD MELLANBY Experimenten av Edward MELLANBY

As early as 1949, the researcher Edward Mellanby demonstrated the demineralizing effects of phytic acid. Så tidigt som 1949 visade forskaren Edward Mellanby de demineralisering effekterna av fytinsyra. By studying how grains with and without phytic acid affect dogs, Mellanby discovered that consumption of high-phytate cereal grain interferes with bone growth and interrupts vitamin D metabolism. Genom att studera hur korn med och utan fytinsyra påverkar hundar, Mellanby upptäckte att konsumtionen av hög fytat spannmål stör bentillväxt och avbryter vitamin D metabolism. High levels of phytic acid in the context of a diet low in calcium and vitamin D resulted in rickets and a severe lack of bone formation. Höga halter av fytinsyra i samband med en kost låg på kalcium och vitamin D resulterade i rakitis och en allvarlig brist på benbildning.

His studies showed that excessive phytate consumption uses up vitamin D. Vitamin D can mitigate the harmful effects of phytates, but according to Mellanby, “When the diet is rich in phytate, perfect bone formation can only be procured if sufficient calcium is added to a diet containing vitamin D.” 20 Hans studier visade att ett överdrivet fytat konsumtionen använder upp vitamin D. Vitamin D kan minska de skadliga effekterna av fytater, men enligt Mellanby, ”När kosten är rik på fytat kan perfekt benbildning endast upphandlas om tillräckligt kalcium till en kost som innehåller vitamin D. ”20

Mellanby’s studies showed that the rickets-producing effect of oatmeal is limited by calcium. 21 Calcium salts such as calcium carbonate or calcium phosphate prevent oatmeal from exerting rickets-producing effect. Mellanby studier visade att rakitis-producerande effekten av havremjöl begränsas av kalcium. 21 Kalcium-salter såsom kalciumkarbonat eller kalciumfosfat förhindra havremjöl från att utöva rakitis-producerande effekten. According to this view, the degree of active interference with calcification produced by a given cereal will depend on how much phytic acid and how little calcium it contains, or how little calcium the diet contains. Enligt detta synsätt kommer graden av aktiv påverkan förkalkning som produceras av en viss spannmål beror på hur mycket fytinsyra och hur lite kalcium det innehåller, eller hur lite kalcium i kosten innehåller. Phosphorus in the diet (at least from grains) needs some type of calcium to bind to. Fosfor i kosten (åtminstone från korn) behöver någon typ av kalcium för att binda till. This explains the synergistic combination of sourdough bread with cheese. Detta förklarar den synergistiska kombinationen av surdegsbröd med ost. Historically, the cultivation of grains usually accompanies the raising of dairy animals; high levels of calcium in the diet mitigates the mineral-depleting effects of phytic acid. Historiskt följer med odling av korn oftast höjning av mjölkdjur, höga nivåer av kalcium i kosten minskar mineral som bryter effekterna av fytinsyra.

In Mellanby’s experiments with dogs, increasing vitamin D made stronger bones regardless of the diet, but this increase did not have a significant impact on the amount of calcium excreted. I Mellanby experiment med hundar, i allt högre grad vitamin D starkare ben oavsett diet, men denna ökning inte har en betydande inverkan på mängden utsöndras kalcium. Those on diets high in phytate excreted lots of calcium; those on diets high in phosphorus from meat or released from phytic acid through proper preparation excreted small amounts of calcium. De på kost med högt innehåll av fytat utsöndrade massor av kalcium, de om kost rik på fosfor från kött eller frigöras från fytinsyra genom rätt förberedelser utsöndras små mängder kalcium.

Based on Mellanby’s thorough experiments, one can conclude that the growth of healthy bones requires a diet high in vitamin D, absorbable calcium and absorbable phosphorus, and a diet low in unabsorbable calcium (supplements, pasteurized dairy) and unabsorbable phosphorus (phytates). Baserat på Mellanby grundliga experiment kan man dra slutsatsen att tillväxten av friska ben kräver en kost rik på vitamin D, absorberbara kalcium och absorberbara fosfor och en kost med lågt unabsorbable kalcium (tillägg, pastöriserad mjölk) och unabsorbable fosfor (fytater). Interestingly, his experiments showed that unbleached flour and white rice were less anti-calcifying than whole grains that contain more minerals but also were higher in phytic acid. Intressant nog visade sina experiment som oblekt mjöl och vitt ris var mindre anti-förkalkad än hela korn som innehåller fler mineraler men också högre i fytinsyra. Other experiments have shown that while whole grains contain more minerals, in the end equal or lower amounts of minerals are absorbed compared to polished rice and white flour. Andra experiment har visat att medan hela korn innehåller fler mineraler, i slutet lika eller lägre mängder av mineraler absorberas i förhållande till polerad ris och mjöl. This outcome is primarily a result of the blocking mechanism of phytic acid, but may be secondarily the result of other anti-nutrients in grains. Detta resultat är främst en följd av blockering mekanismen för fytinsyra, men kan vara sekundärt till följd av andra anti-näringsämnen i korn.

Thus, absorbable calcium from bone broths and raw dairy products, and vitamin D from certain animal fats, can reduce the adverse effects of phytic acid. Således kan absorberbart kalcium från ben buljonger och råa mjölkprodukter, och vitamin D från vissa animaliska fetter, minska de negativa effekterna av fytinsyra.

Other studies show that adding ascorbic acid can significantly counteract inhibition of iron assimilation by phytic acid. 22 Adding ascorbic acid significantly counteracted phytate inhibition from phytic acid in wheat. 23 One study showed that anti-iron phytate levels in rice were disabled by vitamin C in collard greens. 24 Andra studier visar att tillsätta askorbinsyra kraftigt kan motverka inhibition av järn assimilering av fytinsyra. 22 Lägga askorbinsyra kraftigt motverkas fytat inhibition från fytinsyra i vete 23. En studie visade att anti-järn fytat nivåer i ris har inaktiverats av vitamin C i grönkål 24.

Research published in 2000 indicates that both vitamin A and beta-carotene form a complex with iron, keeping it soluble and preventing the inhibitory effect of phytates on iron absorption. 25 Here we have another reason to consume phytate-rich foods in the context of a diet containing organ meat and animal fats rich in vitamin A, and fruits and vegetables rich in carotenes. Forskning publicerad 2000 visar att både vitamin A och beta-karoten bildar ett komplex med järn, hålla den lösligt och förhindra hämmande effekten av fytater på järn absorptionen. 25 Här har vi en annan anledning att konsumera fytat-rika livsmedel i samband med en kost som innehåller orgel kött och animaliskt fett rik på vitamin A, och frukt och grönsaker rika på karotener.

PHYTASE Fytas

Phytase is the enzyme that neutralizes phytic acid and liberates the phosphorus. Fytas är det enzym som neutraliserar fytinsyra och frigör den fosfor. This enzyme co-exists in plant foods that contain phytic acid. Detta enzym samexisterar i vegetabilier som innehåller fytinsyra.

Ruminant animals such as cows, sheep and goats have no trouble with phytic acid because phytase is produced by rumen microorganisms; monogastric animals also produce phytase, although far less. Idisslande djur som kor, får och getter har inga problem med fytinsyra eftersom fytas är producerad av våmmen mikroorganismer, enkelmagade djur också producera fytas, men mycket mindre. Mice produce thirty times more phytase than humans, 26 so they can be quite happy eating a raw whole grain. Möss producerar trettio gånger fler fytas än människor, 26 så att de kan vara ganska nöjda äta en rå fullkorn. Data from experiments on phytic acid using mice and other rodents cannot be applied to humans. Data från försök på fytinsyra på möss och andra gnagare kan inte appliceras på människor.

In general, humans do not produce enough phytase to safely consume large quantities of high-phytate foods on a regular basis. I allmänhet producerar människan inte tillräckligt fytas för att säkert konsumera stora mängder av hög fytat mat på regelbunden basis. However, probiotic lactobacilli, and other species of the endogenous digestive microflora can produce phytase. 27 Thus, humans who have good intestinal flora will have an easier time with foods containing phytic acid. Däremot kan probiotiska laktobaciller och andra arter av endogena mag mikrofloran producerar fytas 27. Alltså människor som har goda tarmfloran kommer att ha en enklare tid med livsmedel som innehåller fytinsyra. Increased production of phytase by the gut microflora explains why some volunteers can adjust to a high-phytate diet. Ökad produktion av fytas av tarmens mikroflora förklarar varför några frivilliga kan anpassa sig till en hög fytat diet. Sprouting activates phytase, thus reducing phytic acid. 28 The use of sprouted grains will reduce the quantity of phytic acids in animal feed, with no significant reduction of nutritional value. 29 Groning aktiveras fytas, vilket minskar fytinsyra 28. Användningen av grodda kärnor kommer att minska mängden fytinsyror syror i djurfoder, utan signifikant reduktion av näringsvärde. 29

Soaking grains and flour in an acid medium at very warm temperatures, as in the sourdough process, also activates phytase and reduces or even eliminates phytic acid. Blötläggning korn och mjöl i ett surt medium vid mycket varma temperaturer, såsom i surdeg processen, även aktiverar fytas och minskar eller rentav eliminerar fytinsyra.

Before the advent of industrial agriculture, farmers typically soaked crushed grain in hot water before feeding it to poultry and hogs. Innan tillkomsten av industriella jordbruket, jordbrukare indränkt normalt krossat korn i varmt vatten innan den matas till fjäderfä och svin. Today, feed manufacturers add phytase to grain mixes to get better growth in animals. Idag fodertillverkare lägga fytas till spannmål blandas för att få bättre tillväxt hos djur. Commercial phytases are typically produced using recombinant DNA technology. Kommersiella fytaser framställs typiskt med användning av rekombinant DNA-teknologi. For example, a bacterial phytase gene has recently been inserted into yeast for commercial production. Till exempel har en bakteriell fytasgenen nyligen satts in i jäst för kommersiell produktion.

Not all grains contain enough phytase to eliminate the phytate, even when properly prepared. Inte alla kärnor innehåller tillräckligt fytas för att eliminera fytat, även när det är rätt förberedd. For example, corn, millet, oats and brown rice do not contain sufficient phytase to eliminate all the phytic acid they contain. Till exempel innehåller majs, hirs, havre och brunt ris inte tillräckligt fytas för att eliminera all fytinsyra de innehåller. On the other hand, wheat and rye contain high levels of phytase—wheat contains fourteen times more phytase than rice and rye contains over twice as much phytase as wheat. 30 Soaking or souring these grains, when freshly ground, in a warm environment will destroy all phytic acid. Å andra sidan, vete och råg innehåller höga halter av fytas-vete innehåller fjorton gånger mer fytas än ris och råg innehåller över dubbelt så mycket fytas som vete. 30 blötläggning eller souring dessa korn, när nymalen kommer i en varm miljö förstöra alla fytinsyra. The high levels of phytase in rye explain why this grain is preferred as a starter for sourdough breads. De höga nivåerna av fytas i råg förklara varför detta spannmål är att föredra som förrätt för Surdegsbröd.

Phytase is destroyed by steam heat at about 176 degrees Fahrenheit in ten minutes or less. Fytas förstörs av ångvärme vid ca 176 grader Fahrenheit i tio minuter eller mindre. In a wet solution, phytase is destroyed at 131-149 degrees Fahrenheit. 31 Thus heat processing, as in extrusion, will completely destroy phytase—think of extruded all-bran cereal, very high in phytic acid and all of its phytase destroyed by processing. I en våt lösning är fytas förstörs 131-149 grader Fahrenheit 31. Således värmebehandling, som i extrudering, helt kommer att förstöra fytas-tänker på extruderad allt kli spannmål, mycket hög i fytinsyra och alla dess fytas förstöras genom förädling . Extruded cereals made of bran and whole grains are a recipe for digestive problems and mineral deficiencies! Extruderade spannmål gjorda av kli och hela korn är ett recept för matsmältningsproblem och brister mineral!

Phytase is present in small amounts in oats, but heat treating to produce commercial oatmeal renders it inactive. Fytas är närvarande i små mängder i havre, men värmebehandling för att framställa kommersiell havremjöl gör den inaktiv. Even grinding a grain too quickly or at too high a temperature will destroy phytase, as will freezing and long storage times. Även målning av en säd för snabbt eller för hög temperatur förstör fytas, vilket även gäller frysning och långa lagringstider. Fresh flour has a higher content of phytase than does flour that has been stored. 32 Traditional cultures generally grind their grain fresh before preparation. Fresh mjöl har en högre halt av fytas än vad mjöl som har lagrats. 32 Traditionella kulturer i allmänhet mal sin säd fräsch före tillagningen. Weston Price found that mice fed whole grain flours that were not freshly ground did not grow properly. 33 Weston Price fann att möss matade fullkorn mjöl som inte var nymalen inte växa ordentligt. 33

Cooking is not enough to reduce phytic acid—acid soaking before cooking is needed to activate phytase and let it do its work. Matlagning är inte tillräckligt för att minska fytinsyra-syra blötläggning före kokning behövs för att aktivera fytas och låt den göra sitt arbete. For example, the elimination of phytic acid in quinoa requires fermenting or germinating plus cooking (see Figure 3). Till exempel kräver avskaffandet av fytinsyra i quinoa jäsa eller gro plus tillagning (se figur 3). In general, a combination of acidic soaking for considerable time and then cooking will reduce a significant portion of phytate in grains and legumes. I allmänhet kommer en kombination av surt att blötlägga i lång tid och sedan laga mat minskar en betydande del av fytat i spannmål och baljväxter.

THE PHYTATE THRESHOLD Fytat THRESHOLD

It appears that once the phytate level has been reduced, such that there is more available phosphorus than phytate in the grain, we have passed a critical point and the food becomes more beneficial than harmful. Det verkar som när fytatet nivå har minskat, så att det finns mer tillgängligt fosfor än fytat i säden har vi passerat en kritisk punkt och maten blir mer fördelaktigt än skadligt. Retention of phosphorus decreases when phytate in the diet is 30-40 percent or more of the total phosphorus. 35 Retention av fosfor minskar när fytat i kosten är 30-40 procent eller mer av den totala fosforhalten. 35

For best health, phytates should be lowered as much as possible, ideally to 25 milligrams or less per 100 grams or to about .03 percent of the phytate-containing food eaten. För bästa hälsa, bör fytater sänkas så mycket som möjligt, helst till 25 milligram eller mindre per 100 g eller ca 0,03 procent av den ätit fytatinnehållande mat. At this level, micronutrient losses are minimized. På denna nivå är mikronäringsämnen förlusterna minimeras. (For phytate content of common foods as a percentage of dry weight, see Figures 4 and 5.) (För fytatinnehållet i vanliga livsmedel i procent av torr vikt, se figurerna 4 och 5.)

White rice and white bread are low-phytate foods because their bran and germ have been removed; of course, they are also devitalized and empty of vitamins and minerals. Vitt ris och vitt bröd är låg fytat livsmedel eftersom deras kli och groddar har tagits bort, naturligtvis, de är också devitaliserad och tomma av vitaminer och mineraler. But the low phytate content of refined carbohydrate foods may explain why someone whose family eats white flour or white rice food products may seem to be relatively healthy and immune to tooth cavities while those eating whole wheat bread and brown rice could suffer from cavities, bone loss and other health problems. Men den låga fytatinnehållet av raffinerade kolhydrater livsmedel kan förklara varför någon vars familj äter vitt mjöl eller vitt ris livsmedelsprodukter kan tyckas vara relativt frisk och immun mot hål i tänderna medan de äter fullkornsbröd och brunt ris kan lida av håligheter, benförlust och andra hälsoproblem.

PHYTATES AND GERMINATION Fytater och groning

Beer home brewers know that in order to make beer, they need malted (sprouted) grains. Öl hem bryggerier vet att för att göra öl, de behöver mältade (grodda) korn. Soaking and germinating grains is a good idea, but it does not eliminate phytic acid completely. Blötläggning och gro korn är en bra idé, men det eliminerar inte fytinsyra helt. Significant amounts of phytic acid will remain in most sprouted grain products. Betydande mängder fytinsyra förblir i de flesta grodda spannmålsprodukter. For example, malting reduces wheat, barley or green gram phytic acid by 57 percent. Till exempel minskar maltkorn vete, korn eller grön gram fytinsyra med 57 procent. However, malting reduces anti-nutrients more than roasting. 36 In another experiment, malting millet also resulted in a decrease of 23.9 percent phytic acid after 72 hours and 45.3 percent after 96 hours. 37 Minskar dock mältning anti-näringsämnen mer än rostning. 36 I ett annat experiment mältning hirs också resulterat i en minskning av 23,9 procent fytinsyra efter 72 timmar och 45,3 procent efter 96 timmar. 37

In legumes, sprouting is the most effective way to reduce phytic acid, but this process does not get rid of all of it. I baljväxter är groning det mest effektiva sättet att minska fytinsyra, men denna process inte bli av med allt. Germinating peanuts led to a 25 percent reduction in phytates. Groende jordnötter ledde till en 25 procent minskning av fytater. After five days of sprouting, chick peas maintained about 60 percent of their phytate content and lentils retained about 50 percent of their original phytic acid content. Efter fem dagars groning, kikärtor underhållas ca 60 procent av fytatinnehållet och linser kvar cirka 50 procent av sin ursprungliga fytinsyra innehåll. Sprouting and boiling pigeon pea and bambara groudnut reduced phytic acid by 56 percent. 38 Germinating black eyed beans resulted in 75 percent removal of phytate after five days sprouting. Groning och kokning duva ärt-och Bambara groudnut minskat fytinsyra med 56 procent. 38 groende Black Eyed Beans resulterat i 75 procent borttagande av fytat efter fem dagar groning.

Germination is more effective at higher temperatures, probably because the heat encourages a fermentation-like condition. Groning är mer effektiv vid högre temperaturer, sannolikt på grund av värmen uppmuntrar en fermentering-liknande tillstånd. For pearled millet, sprouting at 92 degrees F for a minimum of 48 hours removed 92 percent of the phytate. För pärlgryn hirs, bort groning vid 92 grader F under minst 48 timmar 92 procent av fytat. At 82 degrees F, even after 60 hours, only 50 percent of phytic acid was removed. Vid 82 ° F, även efter 60 timmar, var endast 50 procent av fytinsyra avlägsnas. Higher temperatures above 86 degrees F seem less ideal for phytate removal, at least for millet. 39 Högre temperaturer över 86 grader verkar mindre perfekt för fytat avlägsnande, åtminstone för hirs. 39

Sprouting releases vitamins and makes grains and beans and seeds more digestible. Groning frigör vitaminer och gör spannmål och bönor och frön mer lättsmält. However it is a pre-fermentation step, not a complete process for neutralizing phytic acid. Det är emellertid en för-jäsning steg, inte en komplett process för neutralisering av fytinsyra. Consuming grains regularly that are only sprouted will lead to excess intake of phytic acid. Tidskrävande korn regelbundet att endast spirat kommer att leda till för stort intag av fytinsyra. Sprouted grains should also be soaked and cooked. Grodda kärnor bör också blötläggas och kokas.

ROASTING AND PHYTIC ACID ROSTNING och fytinsyra

Roasting wheat, barley or green gram reduces phytic acid by about 40 percent. 40 If you subsequently soak roasted grains, you should do so with a culture that supplies additional phytase, as phytase will be destroyed by the roasting process. Rostning vete, korn eller grön gram reducerar fytinsyra med ca 40 procent. 40 Om du sedan blöt rostade kärnor, bör du göra det med en kultur som levererar ytterligare fytas, vilket fytas kommer att förstöras av rostningsprocessen.

ACIDIC SOAKING AND PHYTIC ACID SUR blötläggning och fytinsyra

For grains and legumes that are low in phytase, soaking does not usually sufficiently eliminate phytic acid. För spannmål och baljväxter som är låga i fytas, inte blötläggning vanligtvis inte är tillräckligt att eliminera fytinsyra. Soaking of millet, soya bean, maize, sorghum, and mung bean at 92 degrees F for 24 hours decreased the contents of phytic acid by 4–51 percent. 43 With these same grains and beans, soaking at room temperature for 24 hours reduced phytic acid levels by 16–21 percent. 44 However, soaking of pounded maize for one hour at room temperature already led to a reduction of phytic acid by 51 percent. 45 Blötläggning av hirs, böna sojaböna, majs, durra och mung vid 92 ° F under 24 timmar minskade innehållet av fytinsyra genom 4-51 procent. 43 Med nämnda korn och bönor, blötning vid rumstemperatur under 24 timmar minskade fytisk syra nivåer 16-21 procent. 44 ledde dock blötläggning av pounded majs för en timme vid rumstemperatur redan en minskning av fytinsyra med 51 procent. 45

Sourdough fermentation of grains containing high levels of phytase—such as wheat and rye—is the process that works best for phytate reduction. Sourdough jäsning av korn som innehåller höga halter av fytas-som vete och råg-är den process som fungerar bäst för fytat minskning. Sourdough fermentation of whole wheat flour for just four hours at 92 degrees F led to a 60 percent reduction in phytic acid. Sourdough jäsning av hela vetemjöl för bara fyra timmar vid 92 grader har lett till en 60 procent minskning av fytinsyra. Phytic acid content of the bran samples was reduced to 44.9 percent after eight hours at 92 degrees F. 46 The addition of malted grains and bakers yeast increased this reduction to 92-98 percent. Fytinsyra innehållet i kli proverna sänktes till 44,9 procent efter åtta timmar vid 92 grader C. 46 Tillsättning av mältat korn och bagerijäst ökade denna minskning till 92-98 procent. Another study showed almost complete elimination of phytic acid in whole wheat bread after eight hours of sourdough fermentation (See Figure 6). 47 En annan studie visade nästan fullständig eliminering av fytinsyra i fullkornsbröd efter åtta timmars surdeg jäsning (se Figur 6). 47

A study of phytates in recipes used typically by home bread bakers found that leavening with commercial yeast was much less effective at removing phytates. En studie av fytater i recept används vanligtvis av bagare hem bröd fann att jäsning med kommersiell jäst var mycket mindre effektiv på att ta bort fytater. Yeasted whole wheat breads lost only 22-58 percent of their phytic acid content from the start of the bread making process to the complete loaf. 48 Yeasted hela vete bröd förlorade bara 22-58 procent av sin fytinsyra innehåll från början av brödframställningsprocessen den fullständiga limpa. 48

PHYTIC ACID AND YOU Fytinsyra OCH DU

The purpose of this article is not to make you afraid of foods containing phytic acid, only to urge caution in including grains, nuts and legumes into your diet. Syftet med denna artikel är inte att göra dig rädd för att livsmedel som innehåller fytinsyra, bara uppmana försiktighet, inklusive spannmål, nötter och baljväxter i din kost. It is not necessary to completely eliminate phytic acid from the diet, only to keep it to acceptable levels. Det är inte nödvändigt att helt eliminera fytinsyra från kosten, endast för att hålla den till acceptabla nivåer.

An excess of 800 mg phytic acid per day is probably not a good idea. Ett överskott av 800 mg fytinsyra per dag är nog inte en bra idé. The average phytate intake in the US and the UK ranges between 631 and 746 mg per day; the average in Finland is 370 mg; in Italy it is 219 mg; and in Sweden a mere 180 mg per day. 49 Det genomsnittliga fytat intaget i USA och Storbritannien ligger mellan 631 och 746 mg per dag, i genomsnitt i Finland är 370 mg, i Italien är det 219 mg,. Och i Sverige bara 180 mg per dag 49

In the context of a diet rich in calcium, vitamin D, vitamin A, vitamin C, good fats and lacto-fermented foods, most people will do fine on an estimated 400-800 mg per day. I samband med en kost rik på kalcium, vitamin D, vitamin A, vitamin C, bra fetter och lakto-jästa livsmedel, kommer de flesta människor gör bra på en uppskattad 400-800 mg per dag. For those suffering from tooth decay, bone loss or mineral deficiencies, total estimated phytate content of 150-400 mg would be advised. För dem som lider av karies, benförlust eller mineralbrist, beräknade totala fytatinnehållet i 150-400 mg skulle rekommenderas. For children under age six, pregnant women or those with serious illnesses, it is best to consume a diet as low in phytic acid as possible. För barn under sex års ålder, gravida kvinnor eller personer med allvarliga sjukdomar, är det bäst att konsumera en diet som låg fytinsyra som möjligt.

In practical terms, this means properly preparing phytate-rich foods to reduce at least a portion of the phytate content, and restricting their consumption to two or three servings per day. I praktiken innebär detta på rätt sätt förbereda fytat-rika livsmedel för att minska åtminstone en del av fytatinnehållet, och begränsa sin konsumtion till två eller tre portioner per dag. Daily consumption of one or two slices of genuine sourdough bread, a handful of nuts, and one serving of properly prepared oatmeal, pancakes, brown rice or beans should not pose any problems in the context of a nutrient-dense diet. Daglig konsumtion av en eller två skivor av äkta surdegsbröd, en handfull nötter och en portion ordentligt förberedd havregryn, pannkakor, brunt ris eller bönor bör inte innebära några problem i samband med en näringsrik kost. Problems arise when whole grains and beans become the major dietary sources of calories— when every meal contains more than one whole grain product or when over-reliance is placed on nuts or legumes. Problem uppstår när hela korn och bönor blir de stora kostkällor av kalorier-När varje måltid innehåller mer än en fullkorn produkt eller då över-förlitar sig på nötter eller baljväxter. Unfermented soy products, extruded whole grain cereals, rice cakes, baked granola, raw muesli and other high-phytate foods should be strictly avoided. Ojäst sojaprodukter, extruderade fullkorn spannmål, ris kakor, bakad granola, rå müsli och andra high-fytat livsmedel bör undvikas.

RICE RIS

Brown rice is high in phytates. Brunt ris är hög i fytater. One reference puts phytate content at 1.6 percent of dry weight, another at 1250 mg per 100 grams dry weight (probably about 400 mg per 100 grams cooked rice). En referens sätter fytatinnehållet på 1,6 procent av torrvikt, en annan med 1250 mg per 100 gram torrvikt (troligen omkring 400 mg per 100 gram kokt ris). Soaking brown rice will not effectively eliminate phytates because brown rice lacks the enzyme phytase; it thus requires a starter. Blötläggning brunt ris kommer inte effektivt för att undanröja fytater eftersom brunt ris saknar enzymet fytas, det kräver alltså en förrätt. Nevertheless, even an eight-hour soak will eliminate some of the phytic acid, reducing the amount in a serving to something like 300 mg or less. Ändå kommer även en åtta timmars blötläggning eliminera en del av fytinsyra, vilket minskar mängden i en portion till något som 300 mg eller mindre.

The ideal preparation of rice would start with home-milling, to remove a portion of the bran, and then would involve souring at a very warm temperature (90 degrees F) at least sixteen hours, preferably twenty-four hours. Den idealiska förberedelser av ris skulle börja med hem-fräsning, för att ta bort en del av kli, och då skulle innebära souring på en mycket varm temperatur (90 grader F) minst sexton timmar, helst 20 timmar. Using a starter would be ideal (see sidebar recipe). Med hjälp av en förrätt skulle vara perfekt (se faktaruta recept). For those with less time, purchase brown rice in air-tight packages. För dem med mindre tid, köper brunt ris i lufttäta förpackningar. Soak rice for at least eight hours in hot water plus a little fresh whey, lemon juice or vinegar. Blötlägg riset i minst åtta timmar i varmt vatten plus lite färsk vassla, citronsaft eller vinäger. If you soak in a tightly closed mason jar, the rice will stay warm as it generates heat. Om du blöt i en väl tillsluten Mason Jar kommer riset stå varm som genererar värme. Drain, rinse and cook in broth and butter. Töm, skölj och koka i buljong och smör.

NUTS NÖTTER

In general, nuts contain levels of phytic acid equal to or higher than those of grains. I allmänhet, nötter innehålla högre halter av fytinsyra som är lika med eller högre än de för korn. Therefore those consuming peanut butter, nut butters or nut flours, will take in phytate levels similar to those in unsoaked grains. Därför de tidskrävande jordnötssmör, mutter smör eller mutter mjöl, kommer att ta i fytat nivåer liknande dem i unsoaked korn. Unfortunately, we have very little information on phytate reduction in nuts. Tyvärr har vi väldigt lite information på fytat minskning nötter. Soaking for seven hours likely eliminates some phytate. Blötläggning i sju timmar sannolikt eliminerar vissa fytat. Based on the accumulation of evidence, soaking nuts for eighteen hours, dehydrating at very low temperatures—a warm oven—and then roasting or cooking the nuts would likely eliminate a large portion of phytates. Baserat på ansamling av bevis, blötläggning muttrar för arton timmar, torkning vid mycket låga temperaturer-en varm ugn och sedan rostning eller tillagning muttrar sannolikt skulle eliminera en stor del av fytater.

Nut consumption becomes problematic in situations where people on the GAPS diet and similar regimes are consuming lots of almonds and other nuts as a replacement for bread, potatoes and rice. Mutter konsumtionen blir problematiskt i situationer där folk på GAPS kost och liknande regimer konsumerar massor av mandel och andra nötter som ersättning för bröd, potatis och ris. The eighteen-hour soaking is highly recommended in these circumstances. Den arton timmar blötläggning rekommenderas under dessa omständigheter.

It is best to avoid nut butters unless they have been made with soaked nuts—these are now available commercially. Det är bäst att undvika nötsmör om de inte har gjorts med blötlagda NUTS dessa är nu kommersiellt tillgängliga. Likewise, it is best not to use nut flours—and also coconut flour—for cooking unless they have been soured by the soaking process. På samma sätt är det bäst att inte använda mutter mjöl-och även kokosnöt mjöl-för tillagning om de inte har syrade av blötläggning processen.

It is instructive to look at Native American preparation techniques for the hickory nut, which they used for oils. Det är lärorikt att titta på Native American förberedelse tekniker för hickory muttern, som de använde för oljor. To extract the oil they parched the nuts until they cracked to pieces and then pounded them until they were as fine as coffee grounds. För att utvinna oljan som de uttorkade nötter tills de sprack i bitar och sedan dunkade dem tills de var lika bra som kaffesump. They were then put into boiling water and boiled for an hour or longer, until they cooked down to a kind of soup from which the oil was strained out through a cloth. De läggs sedan i kokande vatten och koka i en timme eller längre, tills de kokta ner till ett slags soppa som oljan ansträngd ut genom en trasa. The rest was thrown away. Resten kastades bort. The oil could be used at once or poured into a vessel where it would keep a long time. 50 Oljan kan användas på en gång eller hällas i ett kärl där det skulle ha en lång tid. 50

By contrast, the Indians of California consumed acorn meal after a long period of soaking and rinsing, then pounding and cooking. Däremot förbrukas indianerna i Kalifornien ekollon måltid efter en lång period av blötläggning och sköljning, sedan dunka och matlagning. Nuts and seeds in Central America were prepared by salt water soaking and dehydration in the sun, after which they were ground and cooked. Nötter och frön i Centralamerika framställdes genom saltvatten blötläggning och uttorkning i solen, varefter de maldes och kokas.

BEANS BÖNOR

All beans contain phytic acid and traditional cultures usually subjected legumes to a long preparation process. Alla bönor innehåller fytinsyra och traditionella kulturer oftast utsätts baljväxter till en lång beredningsprocessen. For example, according to one source, “Lima beans in Nigeria involve several painstaking processes to be consumed as a staple.” 51 In central America, beans are made into a sour porridge called chugo, which ferments for several days. Till exempel, enligt en källa ”Lima bönor i Nigeria involvera flera mödosamma processer som konsumeras som en stapelvara.” 51 I Centralamerika är bönor görs till en sur gröt som kallas chugo, som jäser i flera dagar.

The best way of reducing phytates in beans is sprouting for several days, followed by cooking. Det bästa sättet att minska fytater i bönor är groning under flera dagar, följt av matlagning. An eighteen-hour fermention of beans without a starter at 95 degrees F resulted in 50 percent phytate reduction. 52 Lentils fermented for 96 hours at 108 degrees F resulted in 70-75 percent phytate destruction. 53 Lentils soaked for 12 hours, germinated 3-4 days and then soured will likely completely eliminate phytates. En arton timmars fermention bönor utan förrätt på 95 grader F resulterade i 50 procent fytat reduktion 52 Linser fermenterade under 96 timmar vid 108 grader F resulterade i 70-75 procent fytat förstörelsen 53 Linser indränkta i 12 timmar, grott 3.. – 4 dagar och sedan syrade sannolikt kommer att helt eliminera fytater.

Soaking beans at moderate temperatures, such as for 12 hours at 78 degrees F results in an 8-20 percent reduction in phytates. 54 Blötläggning bönor vid måttliga temperaturer, t.ex. i 12 timmar vid 78 grader F resulterar i en 8-20 procent minskning av fytater. 54

When legumes comprise a large portion of the diet, one needs to go to extra steps to make beans healthy to eat. När baljväxter utgör en stor del av kosten måste man gå till extra åtgärder för att bönor hälsosamt att äta. Beans should usually have hull and bran removed. Bönor bör normalt ha skrov och kli bort. Adding a phytase-rich medium to beans would help eliminate the phytic acid in beans. Lägga till en fytas-rikt medium till bönor skulle hjälpa eliminera fytinsyra i bönor. Adding yeast, or effective micororganisms, or kombu seaweed may greatly enhance the predigestive process of the beans. Tillsats jäst, eller effektiva micororganisms eller Raderingar tång kan i hög grad öka predigestive processen av bönorna. One website suggests using a starter containing effective microorganisms and cultured molasses for soaking beans. 55 En webbplats föreslår att man använder en förrätt med effektiva mikroorganismer och odlade melass för blötläggning bönor. 55

At a minimum, beans should be soaked for twelve hours, drained and rinsed several times before cooking, for a total of thirty-six hours. Som ett minimum bör bönorna blötläggas i tolv timmar, dräneras och sköljas flera gånger innan tillagning, för totalt trettiosex timmar. Cooking with a handful of green weed leaves, such as dandelion or chickweed, can improve mineral assimilation. Matlagning med en handfull gröna ogräs blad, såsom maskros och våtarv kan förbättra mineral assimilering.

TUBERS STAM-ELLER ROTKNÖLAR

Sweet potatoes and potatoes contain little phytic acid but yams and other starchy staples contain levels of phytate that we cannot ignore. Sötpotatis och potatis innehåller mycket fytinsyra, men jams och andra basvaror stärkelsehaltiga innehåller halter av fytat som vi inte kan ignorera. The phytic acid content of arrowroot is unknown, but it may contain a significant amount. 56 These foods should be fermented—as they usually are in traditional cultures—if they are a staple in the diet. Den fytinsyrainnehållet av arrowrot är okänd, men den kan innehålla en betydande mängd. 56 Dessa livsmedel bör jäsas-som det brukar vara i traditionella kulturer, om de är en stapelvara i kosten. For occasional eating, cooking well and consuming with plenty of butter and vitamin C-rich foods should suffice. För tillfällig äta bör matlagning väl och tidskrävande med mycket smör och vitamin C-rika livsmedel räcka.

BREAD BRÖD

Bread can only be called the staff of life if it has undergone careful preparation; otherwise bread can be the road to an early grave. Bröd kan bara kallas personal liv om det har genomgått noggranna förberedelser, annars bröd kan vara vägen till en tidig grav. For starters, the flour used in bread should be stone ground. Till att börja med ska mjölet som används i bröd är sten mark. Wheat and rye contain high levels of phytase, but this is destroyed by the heat of industrial grinding, and also lessens over time. Vete och råg innehåller höga nivåer av fytas, men detta förstörs av värmen från industriella slipning, och minskar också med tiden. Fresh grinding of wheat or rye berries before use will ensure that the original amount of phytase remains in the flour. Fresh slipning av vete eller råg bär före användning kommer att säkerställa att den ursprungliga mängden fytas kvar i mjölet.

Rye has the highest level of phytase in relation to phytates of any grain, so rye is the perfect grain to use as a sourdough starter. Rye har den högsta nivån av fytas i förhållande till fytater av något spannmål, så råg är den perfekta säden att använda som en surdeg förrätt. Phytates in wheat are greatly reduced during sourdough preparation, as wheat is also high in phytase. Fytater i vete kraftigt reduceras under surdeg beredning, som vete är också hög i fytas. Yeast rising bread may not fully reduce phytic acid levels. 57 Phytate breakdown is significantly higher in sourdough bread than in yeasted bread. 58 Jäst ökar brödet kanske inte helt sänka fytinsyra nivåer. 57 Fytat fördelning är betydligt högre i surdegsbröd än i yeasted bröd. 58

Yet even with the highly fermentable rye, a traditional ancient recipe from the French calls for removal of 25 percent of the bran and coarse substances. 59 As an example of this practice, one small bakery in Canada sifts the coarse bran out of the flour before making it into bread. 62 Men även med den mycket fermenterbara råg, ett traditionellt gammalt recept från den franska kräver borttagande av 25 procent av kli och grova ämnen. 59 Som ett exempel på denna praxis, sovrar ett litet bageri i Kanada den grova kliet ur mjöl innan vilket gör det till bröd. 62

OATS HAVRE

Oats contain very little phytase, especially after commercial heat treatment, and require a very long preparation period to completely reduce phytic acid levels. Havre innehåller mycket lite fytas, särskilt efter kommersiella värmebehandling, och kräver en mycket lång förberedelsetid för att helt sänka fytinsyra nivåer. Soaking oats at 77 degrees F for 16 hours resulted in no reduction of phytic acid, nor did germination for up to three days at this temperature. 63 However, malting (sprouting) oats for five days at 52 degrees F and then soaking for 17 hours at 120 degrees F removes 98 percent of phytates. Blötläggning havre vid 77 grader F under 16 timmar resulterade inte i någon minskning av fytinsyra, inte heller groning upp till tre dagar vid denna temperatur. 63 dock mältning (groning) havre i fem dagar vid 52 grader F och sedan blötläggning i 17 timmar vid 120 grader F avlägsnar 98 procent av fytater. Adding malted rye further enhances oat phytate reduction. 64 Without initial germination, even a five-day soaking at a warm temperature in acidic liquid may result in an insignificant reduction in phytate due to the low phytase content of oats. Lägga mältat rågen ökar ytterligare sänkning havre fytat. 64 utan initial grobarhet, även en fem-dagen med att njuta vid en varm temperatur i sur vätska kan resultera i en obetydlig minskning av fytat grund av den låga fytas innehållet i havre. On the plus side, the process of rolling oats removes a at least part of the bran, where a large portion of the phytic acid resides. På plussidan, avlägsnar processen rullande havre en åtminstone en del av kli, där en stor del av fytinsyra finns.

How do we square what we know about oats with the fact that oats were a staple in the diet of the Scots and Gaelic islanders, a people known for their robust good health and freedom from tooth decay? Hur förena vi vad vi vet om havre med det faktum att havre var en stapelvara i kosten för skottar och gaeliska öbor, ett folk kända för sin robusta god hälsa och frihet från karies? For one thing, high amounts of vitamin D from cod’s liver and other sources, helps prevent calcium losses from the high oat diet. För en sak, höga halter av vitamin D från torsk lever och andra källor, hjälper till att förhindra kalcium förluster från den höga havre diet. Absorbable calcium from raw dairy products, consumed in abundance on mainland Scotland, provides additional protection. Absorberbart kalcium från råa mjölkprodukter, konsumeras i överflöd på fastlandet Skottland, ger extra skydd.

In addition, it is likely that a good part of the phytase remained in the oats of yore, which partially germinated in stacks left for a period in the field, were not heat treated and were hand rolled immediately prior to preparation. Dessutom är det troligt att en stor del av fytas kvar i havren forna, som delvis grodda i staplar kvar för en period i området, inte värmebehandlade och har handen rullades omedelbart före beredning. And some Scottish and Gaelic recipes do call for a long fermentation of oats before and even after they are cooked. Och vissa skotska och gaeliska recept kallar för en lång jäsning av havre före och även efter att de är kokta.

Unprocessed Irish or Scottish oats, which have not been heated to high temperatures, are availabile in some health food stores and on the internet. Obearbetade irländska eller skotska havre, som inte har upphettats till höga temperaturer, är availabile i vissa hälsokostbutiker och på internet. One study found that unheated oats had the same phytase activity as wheat. 65 They should be soaked in acidulated water for as long as twenty-four hours on top of a hot plate to keep them at about 100 degrees F. This will reduce a part of the phytic acid as well as the levels of other anti-nutrients, and result in a more digestible product. En studie visade att ouppvärmda havre hade samma fytas aktivitet som vete. 65 De bör blötläggas i surgjort vatten så länge som 20 timmar på toppen av en värmeplatta för att hålla dem på ca 100 grader C. Detta kommer att minska en del av fytinsyra samt nivåerna av andra anti-näringsämnen, och resultera i en mer lättsmält produkt. Overnight fermenting of rolled oats using a rye starter—or even with the addition of a small amount of fresh rye flour—may result in a fairly decent reduction of phytate levels. Över natten fermentera av havregryn med användning av en råg startmotor-eller även med tillsats av en liten mängd färsk rågmjöl-kan resultera i en ganska bra reduktion av fytat nivåer. It is unclear whether heat-treated oats are healthy to eat regularly. Det är oklart om värmebehandlade havre är hälsosamt att äta regelbundet.

SEEDS UTSÄDE

Seeds—such as pumpkin seeds—are extremely high in phytic acid and require thorough processing to remove it. Frön-som pumpafrön-är extremt höga i fytinsyra och kräver noggrann behandling för att ta bort den. Some may be removed by soaking and roasting. Vissa föroreningar kan avlägsnas genom blötläggning och stekning. It is best to avoid consuming or snacking on raw seeds. Det är bäst att undvika tidskrävande eller småätande på råa frön. By the way, cacao is a seed. Förresten, är kakao en frö. Cacao contains irritating tannins and is said to be extremely high in phytic acid, although studies verifying phytic acid levels in cacao could not be located. Cacao innehåller irriterande tanniner och sägs vara extremt hög fytinsyra, även om studier kontrollerar fytinsyra nivåer i cacao inte kunde lokaliseras. Some brands of raw cocoa and cocoa powder may be fermented, others may not be. Vissa märken av rå kakao och kakaopulver kan fermenteras, andra inte. Check with the manufacturer before indulging! Kontrollera med tillverkaren innan hänge!

CORN MAJS

Corn is high in phytic acid and low in phytase. Majs är hög i fytinsyra och låg fytas. The Native Americans fermented cooked corn meal for two weeks, wrapped in corn husks, before preparing it as a flat bread or tortilla. De indianer jäst kokt majsmjöl i två veckor, inslagna i majs skal innan förbereder det som en platt bröd eller tortilla. In Africa, corn is fermented for long periods of time using a lactobacillis culture to produce foods like kishk, banku, or mawe. I Afrika är majs fermenteras under lång tid med hjälp av en lactobacillis kultur för att producera mat som Kishk, banku eller Mawe. No such care is given to corn products in the western world! Ingen sådan vård ges till majs produkter i västvärlden! But you can prepare healthy corn products at home. Men du kan förbereda hälsosamma majs produkter hemma. As with oatmeal, the addition of a rye starter or rye flour to the soaking water may be particularly helpful in reducing phytate content—think of the colonial “Ryn’n’Injun” bread made from rye and corn. Som med havregryn, kan tillägg av en råg förrätt eller rågmjöl till blötläggning vattnet vara särskilt hjälp för att minska fytatinnehållet-tänk på koloniala ”Ryn’n’Injun” bröd gjort på råg och majs. In one research project, soaking ground corn with 10 percent whole rye flour resulted in a complete reduction of phytate in six hours. 66 Again, more research—and more experimenting in the kitchen—is needed! I ett forskningsprojekt, blötläggning marken majs med 10 procent fullkornsrågmjöl resulterade i en fullständig reduktion av fytat i sex timmar. 66 Återigen, mer forskning och mer experimentera i köket-behövs!

RYE TO THE RESCUE RYE TILL RESCUE

For those who need to reduce phytic acid to minimum levels—those suffering from tooth decay, bone loss and nutrient deficiencies—the magic ingredient is rye. För dem som behöver minska fytinsyra till miniminivåer-som lider av karies, förlust av benmassa och näringsbrister-den magiska ingrediensen är råg. To bring the phytate content of your diet to the absolute minimum, add freshly ground rye flour or a sourdough rye culture to rolled or cut oats, cornmeal, rice and other low-phytase grains, then soak in an acidic medium—preferably water with whey, yogurt or sour milk added—on a hot plate to bring the temperature up to about 100 degrees F. This is a better solution than consuming white rice and white flour, which are relative low in phytate but have a greatly reduced mineral content (see Figure 7). För att bringa fytatinnehållet i din kost till ett absolut minimum, lägg färskt mjöl marken råg eller en surdeg råg kultur valsade eller sönderskurna havre, majsmjöl, ris och andra låg-fytas korn och blötlägg i ett surt medium, helst vatten med vassle , yoghurt eller filmjölk till-på en varm platta för att få temperaturen upp till ca 100 grader C. Detta är en bättre lösning än att konsumera vitt ris och vitt mjöl, som är relativt låg fytat men har en kraftigt reducerad mineralhalt (se Figur 7).

The intention of the article is not to impose a decision about whether or not to consume grains, nuts, seeds and beans; rather it is to clarify how to consume them with awareness. This way you can maximize your health by making grain-based foods more digestible and absorbable. Now it is very clear which foods contain phytic acid and how much they contain, what the health effects of phytic acid are and how to mitigate phytic acid in your diet with complementary foods rich in vitamin C, vitamin D and calcium. Methods for preparation of grains, seeds, and beans have been clarified, so that you can estimate how much phytic acid you are consuming. One meal high in phytic acid won’t cause a healthy person any harm. But high phytic acid levels over weeks and months can be very problematic.

Fortunately, not only are properly prepared foods better for you, they also taste great. Now you can enjoy some well fermented sourdough bread, together with a piece of raw milk cheese, lots of butter and a slice of meat of your choice and taste the essence of life.

Note to readers: This article is a work in progress. Please send additional information or comments tophytates@curetoothdecay.comThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. Den här e-postadressen är skyddad från spamrobotar. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Du måste ha Javascript aktiverat för att visa den.


SIDEBARS

FIGURE 1: FOOD SOURCES OF PHYTIC ACID 7
As a percentage of dry weight

FOOD MAT MINIMUM MAXIMUM
Sesame seed flour 5.36 5,36 5.36 5,36
Brazil nuts 1.97 1,97 6.34 6,34
Almonds Mandlar 1.35 1,35 3.22 3,22
Tofu Tofu 1.46 1,46 2.90 2,90
Linseed Linfrö 2.15 2,15 2.78 2,78
Oat meal 0.89 0,89 2.40 2,40
Beans, pinto 2.38 2,38 2.38 2,38
Soy protein concentrate 1.24 1,24 2.17 2,17
Soybeans Sojabönor 1.00 1,00 2.22 2,22
Corn Majs 0.75 0,75 2.22 2,22
Peanuts Jordnötter 1.05 1,05 1.76 1,76
Wheat flour Vetemjöl 0.25 0,25 1.37 1,37
Wheat Vete 0.39 0,39 1.35 1,35
Soy beverage 1.24 1,24 1.24 1,24
Oats Havre 0.42 0,42 1.16
Wheat germ Vetegroddar 0.08 0,08 1.14 1,14
Whole wheat bread 0.43 0,43 1.05 1,05
Brown rice Brunt ris 0.84 0.99 0,99
Polished rice 0.14 0,14 0.60 0,60
Chickpeas Kikärter 0.56 0,56 0.56 0,56
Lentils Linser 0.44 0,44 0.50 0,50

FIGURE 2: PHYTIC ACID LEVELS 8
In milligrams per 100 grams of dry weight

Brazil nuts 1719 1719
Cocoa powder 1684-1796
Brown rice Brunt ris 12509 12.509
Oat flakes 1174 1174
Almond Mandel 1138 – 1400
Walnut Valnöt 982 982
Peanut roasted 952 952
Peanut ungerminated 821 821
Lentils Linser 779 779
Peanut germinated 610 610
Hazel nuts 648 – 1000
Wild rice flour 634 – 752.5
Yam meal 637 637
Refried beans 622 622
Corn tortillas 448 448
Coconut Kokos 357 357
Corn Majs 367 367
Entire coconut meat 270 270
White flour 258 258
White flour tortillas 123 123
Polished rice 11.5 – 66
Strawberries Jordgubbar 12 12

PHYTATES: A BENEFICIAL ROLE?

As evidence of the detrimental effects of phytates accumulates, reports on alleged beneficial effects have also emerged. In fact, a whole book, Food Phytates , published in 2001 by CRC press, attempts to build a case for “phytates’ potential ability to lower blood glucose, reduce cholesterol and triacylglycerols, and reduce the risks of cancer and heart disease.” 14

One argument for the beneficial effects of phytates is based on the premise that they act as anti-oxidants in the body. But recent studies indicate that an overabundance of anti-oxidants is not necessarily a good thing as these compounds will inhibit the vital process of oxidation, not only in our cells but also in the process of digestion.

Another theory holds that phytates bind to extra iron or toxic minerals and remove them from the body, thus acting as chelators and promoting detoxification. As with all anti-nutrients, phytates may play a therapeutic role in certain cases.

For example, researchers claim that phytic acid may help prevent colon cancer and other cancers. 15 Phytic acid is one of few chelating therapies used for uranium removal. 16

Phytic acid’s chelating effect may serve to prevent, inhibit, or even cure some cancers by depriving those cells of the minerals (especially iron) they need to reproduce. 17 The deprivation of essential minerals like iron would, much like other broad treatments for cancer, also have negative effects on non-cancerous cells. For example, prolonged use of phytic acid to clear excess iron may deprive other cells in the body that require iron (such as red blood cells).

One theory is that phytates can help patients with kidney stones by removing excess minerals from the body. However, a long-term study involving over forty-five thousand men found no correlation between kidney stone risk and dietary intake of phytic acid. 18

Phytates also have the potential for use in soil remediation, to immobilize uranium, nickel and other inorganic contaminants. 19

OTHER ANTI-NUTRIENTS

Phytates represent just one of many anti-nutrients in grains, nuts, tubers, seeds and beans. These include oxalates, tannins, trypsin inhibitors, enzyme inhibitors, lectins (hemagglutinins), protease inhibitors, gluten, alpha-amylase inhibitors and alkylresorcinols .

Anti-nutrients exist in these plant foods because they are part of the process of life. The natural world requires them in order to perform many important tasks, including protection against insects, maintaining freshness of seeds for germination, and protection against mold and fungus. In order to consume these foods on a regular basis we must remove the phytates and other anti-nutrients through processing in harmonious ways. Many people in the health field assure us that if something is from nature, then it doesn’t require processing. Phytates act as the seed’s system of preservatives, like the impossible-to-open plastic packaging of many consumer goods. To get to the item we need—namely, phosphorus—we need to unwrap the phytate-phosphorus package.

FIGURE 3: QUINOA PHYTATE REDUCTION 34

PROCESS PROCESS PHYTATE REDUCTION
Cooked for 25 minutes at 212 degrees F 15-20 percent
Soaked for 12-14 hours at 68 degrees F, then cooked 60-77 percent
Fermented with whey 16-18 hours at 86 degrees F, then cooked 82-88 percent
Soaked 12-14 hours, germinated 30 hours, lacto-fermented 16-18 hours, then cooked at 212 degrees F for 25 minutes 97-98 percent

FIGURE 4: PHYTATE 41
As Percentage of Dry Weight

Sesame seeds dehulled 5.36 5,36
100% Wheat bran cereal 3.29 3,29
Soy beans 1.00 – 2.22
Pinto beans Pinto bönor 0.60 – 2.38
Navy beans 0.74 – 1.78
Parboiled brown rice 1.60 1,60
Oats Havre 1.37 1,37
Peanuts Jordnötter 1.05 – 1.76
Barley Korn 1.19 1,19
Coconut meal 1.17 1,17
Whole corn 1.05 1,05
Rye Råg 1.01 1,01
Wheat flour Vetemjöl 0.96 0,96
Brown rice Brunt ris 0.84 – 0.94
Chickpeas Kikärter 0.28 – 1.26
Lentils Linser 0.27 – 1.05
Milled (white) rice 0.2 0,2

FIGURE 5: BREAD PHYTATES 42
As Percentage of Weight

Cornbread Kornbröd 1.36 1,36
Whole wheat bread 0.43-1.05
Wheat bran muffin 0.77-1.27
Popped corn 0.6 0,6
Rye Råg 0.41 0,41
Pumpernickel 0.16 0,16
White bread Vitt bröd 0.03- .23
French bread 0.03 0,03
Sourdough rye 0.03 0,03
Soured buckwheat 0.03 0,03

FIGURE 6: REDUCTION OF PHYTIC ACID IN WHOLE WHEAT SOURDOUGH BREAD 47

Percentage of Phytic Acid

spr10-fig6 Time Tid
—- Yeast Fermentation
___ Sourdough Fermentation

PREPARATION OF BROWN RICE

1. 1. Soak brown rice in dechlorinated water for 24 hours at room temperature without changing the water. Reserve 10% of the soaking liquid (should keep for a long time in the fridge). Discard the rest of the soaking liquid; cook the rice in fresh water.

2. 2. The next time you make brown rice, use the same procedure as above, but add the soaking liquid you reserved from the last batch to the rest of the soaking water.

3. 3. Repeat the cycle. The process will gradually improve until 96% or more of the phytic acid is degraded at 24 hours.

Source: Stephan Guyenet http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2009/04/new-way-to-soak-brown-rice.html .

PHYTATES IN BRAN

A survey of indigenous dishes shows that the bran is consistently removed from a variety of grains. The only exception seems to be beer. Traditional beer production—involving soaking, germination, cooking and fermentation—removes phytic acid and releases the vitamins from the bran and germ of grains.

The traditional method for preparing brown rice is to pound it in a mortar and pestle in order to remove the bran. The pounding process results in milled rice, which contains a reduced amount of the bran and germ. Experiments have verified the fact that milled rice, rather than whole brown rice, results in the highest mineral absorption from rice.

The idea we should eat bran is based on the idea of “not enough.” We somehow believe that grains without the bran do not provide enough nutrients. But solving the problem of a lack of bioavailable minerals in the diet may be more a question of soil fertility than of consuming every single part of the grain. A study of the famous Deaf Smith County Texas, the “town without a toothache”—because of their mineral-rich soil producing fabulous butter fat—found that its wheat contained six times the amount of phosphorus as normal wheat. 60 In this case, wheat minus the bran grown in rich soils will have significant amounts or even more phosphorus compared to wheat with the bran grown in poor soil. Low nutrient content in food seems to be better solved by focusing on soil fertility, rather than trying to force something not digestible into a digestible form.

There are many studies in which researchers have tried to find out how to make the bran of different grains digestible and to provide additional nutrition. But small additions of phosphorus- and calcium-rich dairy products, such as milk and cheese, or phosphorous-rich meat will make up for the moderate reductions in mineral intakes from grains without the bran. In one study, the calcium, magnesium, phosphorous and potassium in diets made up with 92 percent flour (almost whole wheat) were less completely absorbed than the same minerals in diets made up with 69 percent flour (with a significant amount of bran and germ removed). 61 This study involved yeasted bread. With sourdough bread, the phytate content of bran will be largely reduced if a phytase-rich starter is used and the flour is fermented at least twenty-four hours.

FIGURE 7: NUTRIENTS IN GRAINS AND OTHER FOODS 67
In milligrams per 100 grams.

Calcium Kalcium Phosphorus Fosfor Iron Iron Calories Kalorier
Whole grain wheat flour 34 34 346 346 3.9 3,9 339 339
Unenriched white flour 15 15 108 108 1.2 1,2 364 364
White rice Vitt ris 9 9 108 108 0.4 0,4 366 366
Milled rice 10-30 10-30 80-150 .2-2.8 349-373
Brown rice Brunt ris 10-50 170-430 .2-5.2 363-385
Blue corn mush (Navajo) 96 96 39 39 2.9 2,9 54 54
Acorn stew 62 62 14 14 1 1 95 95
Milk Mjölk 169 169 117 117 0.1 0,1 97 97
Free range buffalo steak 4 4 246 246 3.8 3,8 146 146
Cheese, mozarella 505 505 354 354 0.4 0,4 300 300

SOME FERMENTED GRAIN FOODS FROM AFRICA

KISHK, a fermented product prepared from parboiled wheat and milk, is consumed in Egypt and many Arabian countries. During the preparation of kishk, wheat grains are boiled until soft, dried, milled and sieved in order to remove the bran. Milk is separately soured in earthenware containers, concentrated and mixed with the moistened wheat flour thus prepared, resulting in the preparation of a paste called a hamma. The hamma is allowed to ferment for about 24 hours, following which it is kneaded. Soured salted milk is added prior to dilution with water. Fermentation is allowed to proceed for a further 24 hours. The mass is thoroughly mixed, formed into balls and dried.

BANKU is a popular staple consumed in Ghana. It is prepared from maize or a mixture of maize and cassava. The preparation involves steeping the raw material in water for 24 hours followed by wet milling and fermentation for three days. The dough is then mixed with water at a ratio of 4 parts dough to 2 parts water; or 4 parts dough to 1 part cassava and 2 parts water. Continuous stirring and kneading of the fermented dough is required to attain an appropriate consistency during subsequent cooking. Microbiological studies of the fermentation process revealed that the predominant microorganisms involved are lactic acid bacteria and moulds.

MAWE is a sour dough prepared from partially dehulled maize meal which has undergone natural fermentation for a one- to three-day period. Traditional mawe production involves cleaning maize by winnowing, washing in water and crushing in a plate disc mill. The crushed maize is screened by sieving whereby grits and hulls are separated by gravity and the fine endosperm fraction collected in a bowl. The grits are not washed but home dehulled, following which they are mixed with the fine fraction, moistened over a 2- to 4-hour period and milled to a dough. The kneaded dough is then covered with a polyethylene sheet and allowed to ferment naturally to a sour dough in a fermentation bowl, or wrapped in paper or polyethylene. In the commercial process which takes place entirely in a milling shop, the grits are washed by rubbing in water, following which the germ and remaining hulls are floated off and discarded along with the water. The sedimented endosperm grits are subsequently blended with the fine endosperm fraction. The dominant microorganisms in mawe preparation include lactic acid bacteria and yeasts.

INJERA is the most popular baked product in Ethiopia. It is a fermented sorghum bread with a very sour taste. The sorghum grains are dehulled manually or mechanically and milled to flour which is subsequently used in the preparation of injera. On the basis of production procedures three types of injera are distinguishable: thin injera which results from mixing a portion of fermented sorghum paste with three parts of water and boiling to yield a product known as absit, which is, in turn, mixed with a portion of the original fermented flour; thick injera, which is reddish in color with a sweet taste, consisting of a paste that has undergone only minimal fermentation for 12-24 hours; and komtata-type injera, which is produced from over-fermented paste, and has a sour taste. The paste is baked or grilled to give a bread-like product. Yeasts are the major microorganisms involved in the fermentation of the sweet type of injera. Source: http://www.fao.org/docrep/x2184e/x2184e07.htm#pre

IRISH AND SCOTTISH OATMEAL

Commercial oats in the US are heat treated to about 200 o F for four or five hours, to prevent rancidity—oats are rich in polyunsaturated oils that can go rancid within three months, especially at warm temperatures, and oats are harvested only once a year. Heat treatment kills enzymes that accelerate oxidation and helps prevent a bitter taste, although it surely damages the fragile polyunsaturated oils as well.

While Irish and Scottish oatmeal is said to be “unheated,” this is not exactly true; these oats are also heat treated —for the same reasons, to minimize rancidity—but usually at lower temperatures. McCann’s Irish steel cut oats are heated to 113-118 o F but Hamlyn’s heats to 212 o F. Truly raw rolled oats are available from www.rawguru.com .

The Alford brand, available only in the UK, is kiln dried for four hours according to their website www.oatmealofalford.com ; they do not provide temperatures.

Hulless oats that have not been heat treated are available from www.sproutpeople.com ; these can be ground or rolled at home before soaking and preparation as oat meal.

UPDATE ON PHYTIC ACID by Rami Nagel

The article on phytic acid (Spring, 2010) was written in response to reports of dental decay, especially in children, even though the family was following the principles of traditional diets. Phytates become a problem when grains make up a large portion of the diet and calcium, vitamin C and fat-soluble vitamins, specifically fat-soluble vitamin D, are low. In the diet advocated by WAPF, occasional higher phytate meals will not cause any noticeable health effects for people in good health. Significantly more care is needed with whole grains when the diet is low in fat-soluble vitamins and in diets where two or more meals per day rely significantly on grains as a food source. Vitamin C reduces the iron and perhaps other mineral losses from phytic acid. Vitamin D can mitigate the harmful effects of phytates. Calcium (think raw milk, raw cheese, yogurt, and kefir) balances out the negative effects of phytates. The best indicator of whether dietary phytic acid is causing problems can be seen in the dental health of the family. If dental decay is a recurrent problem, then more care with grain preparation and higher levels of animal foods will be needed. Article Correction , Brown Rice Preparation The article stated: “Soak brown rice in dechlorinated water for 24 hours at room temperature, without changing the water. Reserve 10 percent of the soaking liquid (which should keep for a long time in the fridge). Cook the rice in the remaining soaking liquid and eat. This will break down about 50 percent of the phytic acid.” The soaking water is to be discarded and the rice should be cooked in fresh water. Readers have noted that after the fourth cycle using the brown rice starter the brown rice becomes significantly softer and more digestible.

PHYTIC ACID IN potatoes , YAMS AND SWEET POTATOES

White potatoes have 0.111-0.269 percent of dry weight of phytic acid, a level approximately equivalent to the amount in white rice. Cooking does not significantly remove phytates in potatoes, but consumption of potatoes with plenty of butter or other animal fat in the context of a nutrient dense diet should be enough to mitigate the effects of phytate. Yams contain an amount of phytate equal to or less than that in white potatoes, and sweet potatoes contain no phytate at all. One idea for corn would be to soak/sour it with wheat such as in the process of making corn bread. Corn generally is prepared without the whole kernel, removing the kernel will reduce the phytate content a little bit. I don’t have further details on corn preparation, an entire article could be written on corn and traditional preparation.

PREPARATION OF OATS AND CORN

When preparing these grains according to traditional methods, such as those provided in Nourishing Traditions, the best idea is to add one or more tablespoons of freshly ground rye flour. Rye flour contains high levels of phytase that will be activated during the soaking process. This method reflects new information obtained since the publication of Nourishing Traditions. Even without the rye flour, overnight soaking of oats and other low-phytase grains greatly improves digestibility but won’t eliminate too much phytic acid. Another grain that benefits from added rye flour during soaking is sorghum, which is lower in phytic acid than wheat but lacking in phytase. (Buckwheat contains high levels of phytase and would not need added rye flour.) You can keep whole rye grains and grind a small amount in a mini grinder for adding to these grains during the soaking process.

PREPARATION OF BEANS

If beans are a staple of your diet, extra care is needed in their preparation, including soaking for twenty-four hours (changing the soaking water at least once) and very long cooking. In general, soaking beans and then cooking removes about 50 percent of phytic acid. One report with peas and lentils shows that close to 80 percent of phytic acid can be removed by soaking and boiling. Boiling beans that haven’t been soaked may remove much less phytic acid. Germinating and soaking, or germinating and souring is the best way to deal with beans; dosas made from soaked and fermented lentils and rice is a good example from India. In Latin America, beans are often fermented after the cooking process to make a sour porridge, such as chugo.

PREPARATION OF NUTS

We still do not have adequate information on nut preparation to say with any certainty how much phytic acid is reduced by various preparation techniques. Soaking in salt water and then dehydrating to make “crispy nuts” makes the nuts more digestible and less likely to cause intestinal discomfort, but we don’t know whether this process significantly reduces phytic acid, although it is likely to reduce at least a portion of the phytic acid.

Roasting probably removes a significant portion of phytic acid. Roasting removes 32-68 percent of phytic acid in chick peas and roasting grains removes about 40 percent of phytic acid. Germinated peanuts have 25 percent less phytic acid then ungerminated peanuts. Several indigenous groups cooked and or roasted their nuts or seeds. I notice that I like the taste and smell of roasted nuts.

The real problem with nuts comes when they are consumed in large amounts, such as almond flour as a replacement for grains in the GAPS diet. For example, an almond flour muffin contains almost seven hundred milligrams of phytic acid, so consumption should be limited to one per day. Eating peanut butter every day would also be problematic.

PREPARATION OF COCONUT FLOUR

We do not have enough information about the preparation of coconut flour to say whether soaking reduces phytic acid, but as with other phytic-acid containing foods, the likelihood is that it is at least partially reduced.

MORE UPDATES Fler uppdateringar

COCONUT AND PHYTIC ACID
I’m writing in regard to the article written by Ramiel Nagel titled ”Living with Phytic Acid” (Spring 2010). In the article there are references to the phytic acid content of coconut. Since the publication of this article people have been asking me whether they should soak coconut or coconut flour to reduce the phytic acid.
Phytic acid occurs in nuts and seeds in two forms—phytic acid and phytic acid salts [Reddy, NR and Sathe, SK (Eds.) Food Phytates . CRC Press, 2001]. Both are generally referred to as ”phytates.” Together, these two compounds make up the total percentage of phytates reported in various foods. However, they do not possess the same chelating power. So the chelating effect of the phytates in corn, wheat, or soy are not the same as those in coconut. You cannot predict the chelating effect based on total phytate content alone.
The mineral-binding effect of the phytates in coconut is essentially nonexistent. It is as if coconut has no phytic acid at all. In a study published in 2002, researchers tested the mineral binding capacity of a variety of bakery products made with coconut f lour. Mineral availability was determined by simulating conditions that prevail in the small intestine and colon. The researchers concluded that ”coconut flour has little or no effect on mineral availability.” (Trinidad, TP and others. The effect of coconut flour on mineral availability from coconut flour supplemented foods. Philippine Journal of Nutrition 2002;49:48-57). In other words, coconut flour did not bind to the minerals. Therefore, soaking or other phytic acid-neutralizing processes are completely unnecessary.
Soaking has been suggested as a means to reduce the phytic acid content in grains and nuts. Some suggest coconut flour should also be soaked. To soak coconut flour doesn’t make any sense. The coconut meat from which the flour is made, is naturally soaked in water its entire life (12 months) as it is growing on the tree. To remove the meat from the coconut and soak it again is totally redundant. After the coconut meat has been dried and ground into flour, soaking it would ruin the flour and make it unusable. You should never soak coconut flour.
In the tropics coconut has been consumed as a traditional food for thousands of years. Those people who use it as a food staple and regard it as ”sacred food,” do not soak it or process it in any way to remove phytates. It is usually eaten raw. This is the traditional method of consumption. They apparently have not suffered any detrimental effects from it even though in some populations it served as their primary source of food.

Bruce Fife, ND
Colorado Springs, Colorado Colorado Springs, Colorado


REFERENCES REFERENSER

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42. Ibid .

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This article appeared in Wise Traditions in Food, Farming and the Healing Arts , the quarterly journal of the Weston A. Price Foundation, Spring 2010 .

VD: QMI Quality Management Training Institute

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